1.Ovulation pregnancy

Ovulation is a word from the Latin (Ovum – egg). Ovulation in women of childbearing age is periodically (every 21-35 days). The frequency of ovulation is regulated by neurohumoral mechanisms, mainly gonadotropic hormones of the anterior pituitary and ovarian follicular hormone.

Signs of ovulation 

 Subjective signs of ovulation can be the intermittent abdominal pain. Objective signs of ovulation are increased mucous discharge from the vagina and increase in lower rectal (basal) temperature on the day of ovulation, increased progesterone levels in blood plasma, etc.

Disturbance in ovulation is due to dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian system and can be caused by inflammation of genitalia, dysfunction of the adrenal cortex or thyroid, systemic diseases, tumors of the pituitary and hypothalamus, stressful situations.

Lack of ovulation in the childbearing age (anovulation) shows rhythm disturbances of menstruation type oligomenorrhea (menses lasting 1-2 days), amenorrhea, dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Lack of ovulation (anovulation) is always a cause of sterility in women.

Physiology of ovulation cycle 

Once every healthy girl aged 11-15 years began to menstruate, which is an indicator of the willingness of its body to give birth, so there are problems with counting the days of the menstrual cycle and the legitimate question of why menstruation does not occur, or conversely, why did not the long-awaited pregnancy.

It makes a woman all the time to think and expect to be ignorant of what was happening to her every month.

On average, ovulation happens on the fourteenth-day ovulation occurs on the fourteenth day of the menstrual cycle (with a 28-day period).

However, the deviation from the mean observed frequently and to a certain extent is the norm. The duration of the menstrual cycle it is not a reliable source of information on the bottom of the onset of ovulation.

On gynecological examination at the time of ovulation, there is an increase in the number of mucus from the cervical canal.

Besides, sometimes using extensibility, clear mucus, as well as monitor its crystallization, which can be done using a special microscope for home use.

2.Pregnancy Bleeding

Pregnancy bleeding is common in the first trimester of pregnancy, and it is always an indication of abnormal pregnancy. The situation is different with bleeding in the second and third trimester. Vaginal bleeding may be due to several reasons.

What people need to know most about bleeding during pregnancy time :

 If pregnancy bleeding occasionally occurs, always use sanitary pads, to determine how abundant it is and what kind of bleeding is present. 

The first half of pregnancy

Miscarriage: Sometimes vaginal bleeding can be a sign of miscarriage, but not in all cases. Approximately 15-20% of pregnancies end in miscarriage. In most cases, miscarriage occurs during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy.

Signs of miscarriage: 

 1) Vaginal bleeding

2) Abdominal cramps (stronger than menstrual bleeding)

3) Fibrous vaginal

Ectopic pregnancy: 

 In Ectopic pregnancy, the egg attaches and begins to develop outside the uterus. In most cases, an Ectopic pregnancy is an egg in the fallopian (uterine) tubes. Ectopic pregnancy is less common than miscarriage – according to statistics, out of 60 pregnancies, only one Ectopic pregnancy occurs.

Signs of Ectopic pregnancy: 

1) Abdominal cramps (stronger than menstrual 

2) Severe abdominal pain 

3) Low choriogonadotropin hormone

4) Vaginal bleeding 

The most common causes of pregnancy bleeding in the first trimester of pregnancy

Bleeding in the first trimester of pregnancy is a widespread phenomenon, so expectant mothers should know what it is, except the pathologies mentioned above.

Bleeding in early pregnancy may also be due to the following reasons:

1) Embryo implantation: Implantation bleeding is a normal manifestation of pregnancy, which occur at 6-12 weeks after conception. Every woman will experience implantation bleeding in different ways. Some bleeding lasts only a couple of hours, while others a few days. 

2) Some types of infection of the abdominal cavity and urinary tract

3) In case of some pregnant women bleeding starts after sexual intercourse. This is due to the increased sensitivity of the cervix.

3.Early signs of pregnancy

Pregnancy is one of the most pleasant or disturbing periods in the life of the woman.To ensure that everything goes smooth and you successfully give birth to a healthy baby; a pregnancy must be prepared in advance. Consume some vitamins, to establish a proper diet and get rid of bad habits.These factors affect the course of pregnancy and the health of the fetus.

 Early signs of pregnancy can be observed within a week after conception. In pregnant women, there is hormonal alteration and feels it is not only the expectant mother but her surroundings.

Of course, pregnancy is still seemingly invisible (tummy will appear just after 3-4 months), although some women may get acne on face. Some are very tearful (by the way, this state persists in the majority of pregnant women throughout all nine months). But some women do not suspect that she is pregnant, and no early signs of pregnancy are observed, at least until the beginning of menstruation.


Early signs of pregnancy during the first days and the first week after conception can manifest as fever.With what precisely it is connected to is trying to say. But this condition is typical for expectant mothers in the early stages of pregnancy.

If the body temperature may not rise, then the basal temperature (measured in the rectum) is always elevated in pregnant women.

Increased concentrations of human chorionic gonadotropin in the blood:

Other early symptoms of pregnancy may not occur, but the HCG (pregnancy hormone) appears in the blood absolute in all pregnant women.

HCG is determined in blood and urine of pregnant women.It is believed that a blood test is more accurate and determines the pregnancy at an early stage.

It is the determination of HCG in the urine of women is known as pregnancy tests.

Other signs of pregnancy: 

 The beginning of pregnancy in most women is associated with the most robust toxicity, which shows itself as queasiness and heaving.

4.Pregnancy conception

So the birth of a child is an essential step in the life of every family. For this phase, a couple must be prepared in advance, both physically and psychologically.

For the three months before pregnancy, women are encouraged to make the body for bearing a healthy child.

Men also need to lead healthy lives, at least three months before the woman is pregnant because sperm quality is also of great importance. Smoking, alcoholic beverages, and other harmful substances, strong drugs are not recommended for both parents.

The mother’s body requires a lot of calcium. Also, expectant mothers need to heal all teeth before conceiving a child.During pregnancy, the patient’s teeth deteriorate very quickly, and when the body of the child does not have enough calcium that is mainly affected the bones and dental apparatus of the pregnant lady.

Prospective parents must pass all tests for pregnancy conception, like check health. You can roughly calculate in advance the desired month of birth of the baby. Planning for pregnancy conception, oocyte occurs during ovulation. A few days before menstruation egg would be ready for fertilization. If the sperm does not fertilize the egg, then menstruation occurs.

You can calculate when the ovulation period is and at the right time to conceive a child. Ovulation matters the child’s sex. How does it work?

The sperm was carrying the Y chromosome and responsible for male sex, are moving faster than the sperm carrying the X chromosome and responsible for the birth of girls. That is half of a baby depends entirely on the sperm.

During ovulation, the sperm with the Y-chromosomes reach the egg quicker and fertilize it. So, it’s a boy. If ovulation occurred after the sexual act, then the sperm carrying the X chromosome reach the egg and fertilize it. That is important when ovulation (release an egg) for sex.

You can define the period of ovulation, menstruation cycle counting. And you can use the advice of Gynecologists, which recommends a daily basis to measure the body temperature of women rectally (in the anus).

5.Healthy pregnancy

Healthy pregnancy depends upon a properly balanced diet. Pregnancy is a simple process which results in the birth of a normal and healthy baby if pregnant women maintain a proper diet.

A woman constantly needs additional calories and nutrients to sustain healthy growth of her child during the entire period of her pregnancy.

Proper diet during pregnancy is essential and vital because it will help a pregnant woman to gain the necessary weight. Is it necessary to increase the pressure of the child to promote healthily?

This will depend on the importance of women before her pregnancy. A healthy diet during pregnancy will also reduce the possibility of congenital disabilities, such as low weight, pathology at birth and many other problems in the newborn child.

The number of calories and nutrients required by a pregnant woman depends on her daily activities and her weight before pregnancy. In general, a pregnant woman gains about 12-18 pounds, if she keeps the right diet full of healthy vitamins and minerals.

Calories and nutrients needed for healthy pregnancy also depend on the stage of her pregnancy. Typically, the necessary calories during the first three months are the norm, and a pregnant woman does not need any additional supplements and minerals.

Also, to keep a proper diet, a pregnant woman should avoid certain foods that may harm her or the health of her child. The use of alcohol, caffeine, and foods containing high amounts of toxic substances must also be excluded from the diet of pregnant women to ensure that the pregnancy goes smoothly, without complications. Raw, undercooked and unpasteurized food products must be deleted too.

It is100% fruits and vegetables are the best sources of vitamins, proteins, and minerals, and a pregnant woman should eat them regularly in a certain amount. Dairy items contain a lot of calcium and are an essential part in a balanced diet for healthy pregnancy

6.Pregnancy changes

the active development of the baby accompanies pregnancy changes.

Pregnancy changes in pelvic floor:

 This is the part of the body that changes most notably, within which the baby grows. Later, when the childbirth starts, the pelvic bone should be parted to let the child crown outside during birth.

 Pregnancy changes in the uterus:

 Uterus which is known as “The muscular pocket” is where a baby is growing inside the pelvis like the shape of a pear. In early pregnancy, the uterus weighs 50-70 g. Which gradually increases up to 1 kg

Spine during pregnancy:

Backbone holds the weight of our body, and this means that during pregnancy it is experiencing a double burden. When the fetus is growing in the small pelvis, it forces the spine to deviate slightly backward. Thus expectant mothers can maintain stability.

 Abdominal muscles during pregnancy: 

During pregnancy, stretching of abdominal muscles can occur. For example, a woman with a waistline of 66 cm can “expand” up to 100 cm

Changes in the mammary glands during pregnancy:

 It gradually increases during all nine months of pregnancy. This is because the breast is, including the epithelial tissue, which is “responsible” for milk production.

After the young mother stops feeding the baby, the breast may change the shape. This is because the epithelial tissue returns to its former size. To avoid an embarrassing situation, you need to wear a bra which supports your breasts well.

Use special creams and do exercises to strengthen muscles. Equally important is the correct posture. If you are sitting, standing or walking, stooping, the chest seems to be “hanging.” Keep your back straight, lower and relax your shoulders.

The back, buttocks, and legs during pregnancy:

On average, future mothers get weight gain up to 12.5 kg. Out of which 4.5kg of weight are “located” at the hips, arms, back, and abdomen.

7.Pregnancy planning

How to start with pregnancy planning in assessing the health status of both spouses:

  1. Consulting a therapist with the delivery of urine analysis and clinical analysis of blood.
  2. Consultation with an endocrinologist thyroid ultrasound.
  3. Meeting with a gynecologist pelvic ultrasound. A husband should consult to the urologist if basic consult andrology.
  4. Testing for the presence of sexually transmitted infections (PCR, ELISA).
  5. Determination of serum immunoglobulins to rubella virus and Toxoplasma Gondi.
  6. Determination of hormones blood (indication).
  7. Sperm Counts.

 Generally, these activities are enjoyable to start 3-4 months before pregnancy planning. 

 During the survey to prevent the risk of defects (especially neural tube defects imperforated), one should start with multivitamins course for 3-4 months.

Before pregnancy planning one should maintain a healthy lifestyle:

1)Avoid alcohol and tobacco. Even passive smoking is harmful to the fetus.

2) Remember that any drugs can be dangerous for the child. So if you cannot refrain from taking medication, consult your doctor about its effect on oocyte and embryo. There are always the kind counterparts for them. 

3) Mostly sleep should be at least 8 hours a day.

4) Learn how to protect your health from the fall and spring colds, avoid crowded places. Take walks in the parks, away from highways. To prevent the common cold during the epidemiological trouble for bugs, use the oxolinic ointment.

5) Get only positive emotions. Stress is dangerous for a pregnant woman.

 Most of the pregnancies get conceived at the second week and the beginning of the third week, counting from the first day of the last menstrual period, which is the most suitable period for the conception of the fetus.

 As a part of pregnancy planning, a couple should also be prepared mentally and financially for the responsibility of the baby.

8.Miscarriage pregnancy

Miscarriage pregnancy is called a spontaneous abortion which usually occurs within the period to 22 weeks of pregnancy.

Unfortunately, spontaneous abortions occur much more frequently: over half of all conceptions end in fetal death. However, the majority of women have no idea about such situations.

Genetic disorders are a significant (50%) cause of early (before 12 weeks) spontaneous abortions. Genetic modification is a violation of the number or structure of chromosomes in the cells of the embryo.

Because of this disturbed genetic program of development of the fetus, it becomes impractical, dies and is removed from the uterus.

The wrong chromosome can be inherited from the fruit of their parents (which in this case apparently can be completely healthy), but it is quite rare. Much more common chromosomal abnormalities are random crashes during fetal development. Such failures can

be caused by “strong” adverse external factors (radiation, harsh chemicals, etc.), but in many cases the cause of genetic disruptions in the fetus, causing an early miscarriage, remains unclear to the doctors.

Infectious diseases are the second most frequent cause of miscarriage pregnancy. Micro-organisms cause inflammation of the mucous membrane of the uterus, fetal membranes, placenta, which often leads to abortion. 

Gynecological problems (congenital malformations of the uterus, cervical insufficiency) are more likely the causes of spontaneous abortion in the second trimester of pregnancy. 

 Hormonal disorders in pregnant women are also often causing a miscarriage pregnancy. However, with the current level of development in medicines, this condition can be corrected, and with early diagnosis and expert treatment, it is entirely possible to make and give birth to a healthy baby.

 If you receive any of the symptoms like bleeding, severe abdominal cramps, and lower back pain. You should immediately contact a doctor and call an ambulance. In such situations, every minute counts. Bleeding with pieces of tissue suggests that the miscarriage has already occurred. 

9.Pregnancy symptoms

Pregnancy symptoms are the few common signs of changes in a woman’s body which generally experienced by a pregnant woman.

It is not a correct way to call it pregnancy symptoms. What symptoms relate to disease and pregnancy is not a disease but a normal physiological condition of women. It is widely accepted by people and gynecologist to call it signs of pregnancy.

Knowing the pregnancy symptoms, a pregnant woman will be able to determine the earliest time in their pregnancy and, therefore, time to decide for themselves the question of its prolongation (conservation, continuation).

Delay of menstruation as the main symptom of pregnancy.

All women are different, and pregnancy proceeds differently in each case. Therefore, the symptoms of pregnancy, felt by women in the early stages, will be different.

The first pregnancy symptoms are delayed menstruation. In a healthy pregnancy, this symptom must be present. Although in some instances there occurs bleeding. But do not confuse them with regular menstruation. Bleeding during pregnancy suggests the threat of interruption. So if you have a given symptom (bleeding) then to preserve fertility, there will be an urgent need to apply to the antenatal clinic to a gynecologist, or an ambulance. With timely treatment, there has a chance to save the pregnancy.

The symptom of the lack of menstruation has its effect throughout the pregnancy and often continues during breastfeeding.

Increased basal body temperature is a symptom of pregnancy.

This symptom of pregnancy may be considered mandatory. During pregnancy, basal temperature (measured in the rectum) may index 37 and higher degrees. If you are measuring daily basal temperature as a few symptoms of pregnancy or even confirmed the pregnancy with a doctor, but observe a decrease in basal body temperature then you should consult a gynecologist. This can happen because of this threat of miscarriage.

A headache, nausea, and fatigue are not always visible symptoms of pregnancy.

10.Week by week pregnancy

 1st Week: 

This is the week of your last monthly cycle; hormones are preparing to release another egg.

2nd Week:

The floor of the uterus becomes thinner, ovulation (egg deflation) is about to happen. You may feel a sharp pain when ovulation occurs.

 3rd Week:

This is the week when the egg is released into the fallopian tubes; they meet with the sperm of your partner (average during copulation 350 million sperm get a chance to make a trip to the fallopian tube. When the sperm penetrates the ovum, conception occurs. The fertilized egg is called a zygote. As soon as the egg begins to divide into the same cell until it passes along the fallopian tube and enters the uterus.

4th Week:

Your little zygote is a place in the uterus and attaches to it. Now it is called a blastocyst. Once in the womb, it is divided into two parts. One part is connected to the uterine wall and becomes the placenta (life support system, which brings nutrients and removes waste). The other half will be a child. Ultrasound made through the vagina shows the “bag” for the baby (a small bubble, which will be home for the baby).

5th Week:

This week pregnancy tests can confirm that you are in position. Your child is already the size of a grain of apple, and now it is called an embryo, with its own beating heart. The placenta and umbilical cord are actively being developed.

6th Week:

This is the week when usually there are physical manifestations of pregnancy like nausea, hyperthermia, frequent urination, fatigue. The embryo is more like a tadpole than a human being, but his body is increasing.

Pregnancy lasts from 10 months; you must visit the doctor early in pregnancy. Organogenesis is a period when developing essential organs of the embryo.

It starts at the sixth week and continues until the 10th week. It was during this period the fetus is most at risk of acquiring deserts caused by outside variables, (for example, drugs, and different poisons).